How to fix PC problems

Y2038 Superbug (also called Y2038,[1] Y2K38, Y2K38 Superbug or Epochalypse[2] < sup> [3]) This time it’s a formatting error in computer consoles showing times after 03:14:07 UTC on January 19, 2038.

The problem can be found in systems that measure the Unix time of day – the number of seconds since the Unix epoch (00:00:00 UTC January 1, 1970) – combined with storing into a 32-bit imported . The data type can basically represent integers from -(231) to 231 – meaning 1, usually the last hour that can be fully encoded is 2< sup >31 – 1 just after the epoch (03:14:07 UTC, January 16, 2038). An attempt to positively increment the next second (03:14:08) overrides the integer and sets its fair value to – (231), which is also called 231 on systems. seconds before the epoch (20:45:52 UTC December 13, 1901). The problem is essentially the same as the Y2K problem.

Computer products using emergency information may cause serious errors if problem Y2038 is not resolved. Some Reasons Using Dates in the FutureUm, already encountered the error. The most vulnerable are those systems that are typically rarely or never updated, for example compared to legacy and embedded systems. There is usually no one-size-fits-all solution to the problem, but many modern systems have been upgraded to measure Unix time using 64-bit signed integers, which almost certainly span 292 billion years.

Reason

Many workstation systems measure and measure the date based on Unix time, the international standard for digital timekeeping. The set Unix time can be the number of seconds since 00:00:00 UTC on January 1, 1970 (arbitrarily chosen time), which is called the Unix epoch time.

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Unix has historically been encoded as a 32-bit signed integer, a knowledge type consisting of 32 binary numbers (bits) that represent the value of the integer, where “signed” means that a small part is reserved to indicate proof (+ / – ). Therefore, a 32-bit signed integer can only represent integer values ​​from ≈ (231) o 231 ≈ 1 inclusive. Thus, if a 32-bit signed integer is to be used to store Unix overhead, the last time that can be entered would be 231 – 1 (2,147,483,647) just a few per epoch, t 03:07:07 Tuesday, January 19, 2038[4] The system tries to increase this value by one more second to 231, only after the time epoch ( 03:14:08) will support integer overflow, randomly flipping the sign of a small amount to indicate a negative number. This changes the integer value to ˆ'(231) or 231 seconds before wishing that after what systems understand as 20:45:52 on Friday, December 13, 1901. From there, the systems will continue counting, first to zero, and then back through practical integers. Because many computer functions use time calculations to perform critical tasks, this error can lead to fatal errors.

Vulnerable Systems

All system data that uses 32-bit time structures is at risk of failure by default. Complete sale of these pagesThe data structures are nearly impossible to infer, but there are remaining known data structures, all of which have the Unix synchronization problem:

  • File systems (many image systems only use 32-bit files, so sometimes they are inodes)
  • Binary file styles (which use 32-bit time fields)
  • Databases (with 32-bit time fields)
  • Languages ​​for database queries, such as SQL, which have UNIX_TIMESTAMP()-like commands

Embedded Systems

Embedded systems that use data for calculations or diagnostic logging are likely to be primarily affected by Y2038.[1]. 18-24 months in the development of computer systems and embedded systems can be calculated for the lifetime of the machine in which they contain the component. It is possible that some of these systems will still be in use in 2038. In some cases it may not be practical, and in some cases even impossible, to upgrade the PC running these systems, which ultimatelyAs a result, it will require replacement if the 32-bit limits are exceeded during the patching process.

Many transportation systems from flight time. Embedded systems are often used in automobiles. In automotive systems, these may include anti-lock braking system (ABS), paperless stabilization system (ESC/ESP), traction control system (TCS), and automatic four-wheel drive; Aircraft may use inertial guidance systems and GPS receivers.[Note 1] Another important application for airborne systems is communications technology products, including cell phones and Internet devices (eg, routers, wireless tokens, cameras). ). ) ip, which depend on how to get the exact time and date, and are therefore increasingly based on Unix-like operating systems. For example, bug Y2038 crashes some 32-bit Android devices and doesn’t restart when key time is changed on what day.[5]

However, this does not mean that all embedded systems will be affected by the Y2038 issue, as many such components do not require access for many years. For those who track the difference only in terms of time/date and not absolute time/date, there may not be a major problem due to the nature of the formula. This is the case in the automotive industry when considering diagnostics based on regulatory standards such as CARB (California Air Resources Board). problems

In [6]

At The Beginning Of May 2006, There Were Reports Of Some Early Manifestations Of A Serious Issue, Y2038, In The AOLserver Software. The Application Was Designed In Such A Way That A Database Query That “never” Needs To Time Out Can Be Handled As A Mess. Instead Of Just Handling This Particular Case, Real Design Simply Put An Unselected Expiration Date In The Future. The Extension Configuration For The Requesting Server Should Expire Shortly After A Billion Seconds. One Billion Instants (about 32 Years) After 01:27:28 UTC, Attached May 13, 2006, Goes Beyond The Deadline Of 2038. So The Next Time The Timeout Calculation Overflowed And Therefore Returned The Date That Wasin The Past, Causing The App To Crash. When The Problem Was Discovered, The AOLServer Operators Had To Change The Configuration File And Set The Timeout To A Lower Value.[7][8]

Players Of Games Or Apps That Have A Forced Timeout[9] Setting Will Experience This Issue When Baseball Players Try To Bypass The Months By Date Timeout Setting On These Specific Devices After January 20th . , 2038, But It Can’t Because It Uses 32-bit Unix Time Format.

Solutions

There may not be a single solution for every problem in 2038. For example, in C, any change in the market to the definition of the time_t infotype will cause code compatibility issues in any application in which the day and time representation depends on the 32-bit integer type time_t . For example, it would be unprofitable to replace time_t with an unsigned 32-bit integer, which effectively sets the market range to 2106 (specifically, 06:28:15 UTC on Sunday, February 7, 2106). . Connect to programs that store, extractCabins or form data prior to 1970 as data types are represented by negative contact numbers. Increasing the size of the time_t type to 64 bits in an existing large system would result in incompatible changes to the arrangement of structures as well as to the binary interface of functions.

Most running systems designed to run on 64-bit hardware already use signed 64-bit .